FASTING ON ASHURA,TAASOO’AH & ITS RULINGS.

FASTING ON ASHURA,TAASOO’AH & ITS RULINGS.

CONTENT.

1) THE MONTH OF MUHARRAM IS THE FIRST MONTH OF THE ARABIC YEAR, AND IT IS ONE OF THE FOUR SACRED MONTHS OF ALLAH.

2) VIRTUE OF FASTING ASHURA.

3) FASTING ON THE DAY OF ASHURA (I.E ON 10TH OF MUHARRAM).

4) FASTING ON THE DAY OF TAASOO’AH (I.E ON 9TH OF MUHARRAM).

5) HOW DO WE KNOW WHEN ASHURA IS THIS YEAR ?

6) WHY PROPHET (P.B.U.H) MUHAMMED (P.B.U.H) COMMANDED TO KEEP FAST ON ASHURA,TAASOO’AH.

7) RULING ON SINGLING OUT ASHURA FOR FASTING.

8) RULING ON OBSERVING ASHURA,TAASOO’AH FAST BEFORE MAKING UP OBLIGATORY FAST.

9) IF A MENSTRUATING WOMAN MISSES THE FAST OF ‘ASHOORA’, CAN SHE MAKE IT UP AFTER THAT?

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1) THE MONTH OF MUHARRAM IS THE FIRST MONTH OF THE ARABIC YEAR, AND IT IS ONE OF THE FOUR SACRED MONTHS OF ALLAH. :-

“Verily, the number of months with Allaah is twelve months (in a year), so was it ordained by Allaah on the Day when He created the heavens and the earth; of them four are Sacred (i.e. the 1st, the 7th, the 11th and the 12th months of the Islamic calendar). That is the right religion, so wrong not yourselves therein”

(SURAH AT-TAWBAH 9 VERSE 36)

THESE MONTHS ARE CALLED SACRED FOR TWO REASONS. :-

1) Because fighting therein is forbidden unless initiated by the enemy.

2) Because transgression of the sacred limits therein is worse than at other times.

Narrated Abu Bakra:

The Prophet (p.b.u.h) said. “(The division of time has turned to its original form which was current when Allah created the Heavens and the Earths. The year is of twelve months, out of which four months are sacred: Three are in succession Dhul-Qa’ da, Dhul-Hijja and Muharram, and (the fourth is) Rajab of (the tribe of) Mudar which comes between Jumadi-ath-Thaniyah and Sha ban.”

SAHIH BUKHARI (Vol. 4, Book 54, Hadith 419)
SAHIH BUKHARI (Vol. 6, Book 60, Hadith 184)
SAHIH BUKHARI (Vol. 5, Book 59, Hadith 688)
SAHIH BUKARHI (Vol. 9, Book 93, Hadith 539)
SAHIH BUKARHI (Vol. 7, Book 68, Hadith 458)
ABU DAWOOD (Book 10, Hadith 1942)
SAHIH MUSLIM (Book 16, Hadith 4160)

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2) VIRTUE OF FASTING ASHURA. :-

Narrated Ibn `Abbas:

I never saw the Prophet (p.b.u.h) seeking to fast on a day more (preferable to him) than this day, the day of ‘Ashura’, or this month, i.e. the month of Ramadan.

SAHIH BUKHARI (Vol. 3, Book 31, Hadith 224)

Abu Qatada al-Ansari (Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) was asked about his fasting.He was asked about fasting on the day of ‘Ashura (10th of Muharram), whereupon be said: It expiates the sins of the preceding year.

SAHIH MUSLIM (Book 6, Hadith 2603)

Abu Qatadah narrated that :

the Prophet (p.b.u.h) said: “Fast the Day of Ashura, for indeed I anticipate that Allah will forgive (the sins of) the year before it.” (Sahih)

SUNAN TIRMIDHI (Book 4, Hadith 71)

This is from the bounty of Allaah towards us: for fasting one day He gives us expiation for the sins of a whole year. And Allaah is the Owner of Great Bounty.

FASTING ‘AASHOORAA’ FOR WHAT DOES IT OFFER EXPIATION ? :-

IMAM NAWAWI SAID :-

“It expiates for all minor sins, i.e., it brings forgiveness of all sins except major sins.”Then he said (may Allaah have mercy on him):“Fasting the day of ‘Arafaah expiates for two years, and the day of ‘Aashooraa’ expiates for one year. If when a person says ‘Aameen’ it coincides with the ‘Aameen’ of the angels, he will be forgiven all his previous sins… Each one of the things that we have mentioned will bring expiation. If there are minor sins for which expiation is needed, expiation for them will be accepted; if there are no minor sins or major sins, good deeds will be added to his account and he will be raised in status… If he had committed major sins but no minor sins, we hope that his major sins will be reduced.”

(AL-MAJMOO’ SHARH AL-MUHADHDHAB, PART 6, SAWM YAWM ‘ARAFAAH)

SHAYKH AL-ISLAM IBN TAYMIYAH SAID :-

“Tahaarah, salaah, and fasting in Ramadaan, on the day of ‘Arafaah and on ‘Aashooraa’ expiate for minor sins only.”

(AL-FATAAWA AL-KUBRA, PART 5)
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3) FASTING ON THE DAY OF ASHURA (I.E ON 10TH OF MUHARRAM). :-

Fasting on the day of Ashura (i.e on 10th of muharram) is Sunnah.

Narrated Ibn `Abbas:

The Prophet (p.b.u.h) came to Medina and saw the Jews fasting on the day of Ashura. He asked them about that. They replied, “This is a good day, the day on which Allah rescued Bani Israel from their enemy. So, Moses fasted this day.” The Prophet (p.b.u.h) said, “We have more claim over Moses than you.” So, the Prophet (p.b.u.h) fasted on that day and ordered (the Muslims) to fast (on that day).

SAHIH BUKHARI (Vol. 3, Book 31, Hadith 222)

Narrated Salim’s father:

The Prophet (p.b.u.h) said, “Whoever wishes may fast on the day of ‘Ashura’.”

SAHIH BUKHARI (Vol. 3, Book 31, Hadith 218)

Ibn Abbas narrated:

“The Messenger of Allah ordered fasting the tenth day for the Day of Ashura.”

SUNAN TIRMIDHI (Book 4, Hadith 74)

Al-Hakam b. al-A’raj said:

I came to Ibn ‘Abbas who was leaning against his sheet of cloth in the Sacred Mosque (al-Masjid al-Haram). I asked him about fasting on the day of ‘Ashurah. He said: When you sight the moon of al-Muharram, count (the days). When the 9th of Muharram comes, fast from the morning. I said: Would Muhammad (p.b.u.h) observe this fast ? He replied: Thus Muhammad (p.b.u.h) used to fast.

ABU DAWOOD (Book 13, Hadith 2440)
SAHIH MUSLIM (Book 6, Hadith 2526)

Abu Hurairah narrated that :

the Messenger of Allah said: “The most virtuous fasting after the month of Ramadan is Allah’s month Al-Muharram.” (Sahih)

SUNAN TIRMIDHI (Book 4, Hadith 59)

Abu Hurairah narrated that:

Allah’s Messenger (S) said: “The most virtuous fasting after the month of Ramadan is that of Allah’s month of Al-Muharram. And the most virtuous Salat after the obligatory is the night prayer.” (Sahih)

SUNAN TIRMIDHI (Vol. 1, Book 2, Hadith 438)
ABU DAWOOD (Book 13, Hadith 2423)
SAHIH MUSLIM (Book 6, Hadith 2611)
SUNAN NASEEI (Vol. 2, Book 10, Hadith 1614)

THE PRACTICE OF FASTING ON ‘ASHURA’ WAS KNOWN EVEN IN THE DAYS OF JAAHILIYYAH, BEFORE THE PROPHET MISSION. :-

Aishah narrated:

“Ashura was a day that the Quraish used to fast during Jahiliyyah, and the Messenger of Allah used to fast it. But when (the fast of) Ramadan became obligatory, the Ramadan was the required and Ashura was left. So whoever wanted to, he fasted it, and whoever wanted to, he left it.” (Sahih)

SAHIH BUKHARI (Vol. 3, Book 31, Hadith 220)
SUNAN TIRMIDHI ( Book 4, Hadith 72)
SAHIH MUSLIM (Book 6, Hadith 2502)

FASTING ON ASHURA WAS A GRADUAL STEP IN THE PROCESS OF INTRODUCING FASTING AS A PRESCRIBED OBLIGATION IN ISLAM. :-

Narrated `Aisha:

Allah’s Apostle ordered (the Muslims) to fast on the day of ‘Ashura’, and when fasting in the month of Ramadan was prescribed, it became optional for one to fast on that day (‘Ashura’) or not.

SAHIH BUKHARI (Vol. 3, Book 31, Hadith 219)

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4) FASTING ON THE DAY OF TAASOO’AH (I.E ON 9TH OF MUHARRAM). :-

It is mustahabb (encouraged) to fast Taasoo’ah (9th) with Ashura’ (10th).

Ibn ‘Abbas reported that when the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) fasted on the day of ‘Ashura and commanded that it should he observed as a fast, they (his Companions) said to him:Messenger of Allah, it is a day which the Jews and Christians hold in high esteem. Thereupon the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: When the next year comes, God willing, we would observe fast on the 9th But the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) died before the advent of the next year.

SAHIH MUSLIM (Book 6, Hadith 2528)

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5) HOW DO WE KNOW WHEN ASHURA IS THIS YEAR ? :-

If we do not know whether the month of Dhu’l-Hijjah is complete (30 days) or imcomplete (29 days), and no one tells us when the new moon of Muharram was sighted, then we should follow the basic principle, which is that the month should be completed as thirty days. So Dhu’l-Hijjah is counted as being 30 days long, then we calculate the date of ‘Aashooraa’ on that basis.

IMAM AHMAD SAID :-

“If there is confusion about the beginning of the month, one should fast for three days, to be sure of fasting on the ninth and tenth days.”

(AL-MUGHNI BY IBN QUDAMAH, PART 3 AS-SIYAM SIYAM ‘ASHUR’)

If a Muslim wants to be sure that he has fasted on the right day, he should fast two consecutive days at ‘Aashooraa’. So he should calculate when ‘Aa’shooraa’ will be if Dhu’l-Hijjah is twenty-nine days and if it is thirty days, and fast these two days. Thus he will be definite that he has fasted ‘Aashooraa’, and in this case he will have fasted either the ninth and tenth, or the tenth and eleventh, both of which are good. If he wants to be sure of fasting Taasoo’ah (the ninth of Muharram) as well, then he should fast the two days we have spoken of above and the day immediately before them as well. Then he will have fasted the ninth, tenth and eleventh, or the eighth, ninth and tenth. In either case he will have fasted the ninth and tenth for sure.

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6) WHY PROPHET (P.B.U.H) MUHAMMED (P.B.U.H) COMMANDED TO KEEP FAST ON ASHURA,TAASOO’AH. :-

Ibn ‘Abbas reported that when the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) fasted on the day of ‘Ashura and commanded that it should he observed as a fast, they (his Companions) said to him:Messenger of Allah, it is a day which the Jews and Christians hold in high esteem. Thereupon the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: When the next year comes, God willing, we would observe fast on the 9th But the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) died before the advent of the next year.

SAHIH MUSLIM (Book 6, Hadith 2528)

IBN HAJAR SAID :-

Ibn Hajar said, commenting on the hadeeth “If I live until next year I will certainly fast the ninth”: His concern to fast the ninth may be understood as meaning that he would not limit himself to that, rather that he would add it to the tenth, either to be on the safe side, or to be different from the Jews and Christians, which is more likely to be correct; this is what may be understood from some of the reports narrated by Muslim.”

(FATH AL-BAARI, 4/245)

Al-Shaafa’i and his companions, Ahmad, Ishaaq and others said: It is mustahabb [recommended] to fast both the ninth and the tenth, because the Prophet (p.b.u.h) (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) fasted the tenth and intended to fast the ninth. Based on this, there are different ways of fasting ‘ASHURA’, the least of which is to fast the tenth only, but it is better to fast the ninth as well. The more one fasts in Muharram, the better. If one were to ask, what is the wisdom behind fasting the ninth as well as the tenth? The answer is:

AL-NAWAWI (MAY ALLAAH HAVE MERCY ON HIM) SAID :-

The scholars among our companions and others said that there are several reasons for recommending fasting on the ninth day (Tasoo’a’):

1) The intention behind it is to be different from the Jews who limit their fasting to the tenth day. This was narrated from Ibn ‘Abbaas.

2) The intention was to join the fast of ‘ASHURA’ to another day, just as it is not allowed to fast on a Friday on its own [but it is allowed if one fasts the day before or the day after as well].

3) The idea is to be on the safe side and make sure one is fasting on the tenth, in case the moon sighting was not accurate and what people think is the ninth is actually the tenth.

SHAYKH AL-ISLAM IBN TAYMIYAH SAID :-

The Prophet (p.b.u.h) forbade resembling the People of the Book in many haadeth. The strongest of these reasons is in order to be different from the People of the Book.

Ibn ‘Abbas reported that when the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) fasted on the day of ‘Ashura and commanded that it should he observed as a fast, they (his Companions) said to him:Messenger of Allah, it is a day which the Jews and Christians hold in high esteem. Thereupon the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: When the next year comes, God willing, we would observe fast on the 9th But the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) died before the advent of the next year.

SAHIH MUSLIM (Book 6, Hadith 2528)

(AL-FATAAWA AL-KUBRA, PART 6)

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7) RULING ON SINGLING OUT ASHURA FOR FASTING. :-

It is permissible to fast the day of ‘ashura’ on its own.

SHAYKH AL-ISLAM IBN TAYMIYAH SAID :-

Fasting the day of ‘ASHURA’ is expiation for one year, and it is not makrooh to single out this day for fasting.

(AL-FATAAWA AL-KUBRA, PART 5)

IBN HAJAR AL-HAYTHAMI SAID :-

There is nothing wrong with fasting ‘ASHURA’ on its own.

(TUHFAT AL-MUHTAAJ PART 3, BAAB SAWM AL-TATAWWU)

The Standing Committee was asked this question and replied as follows: It is permissible to fast the day of ‘ASHURA’ on its own, but it is better to fast the day before it or the day after it. This is the Sunnah that is proven from the Prophet (p.b.u.h) (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), as he said,

Ibn ‘Abbas reported that when the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) fasted on the day of ‘Ashura and commanded that it should he observed as a fast, they (his Companions) said to him:Messenger of Allah, it is a day which the Jews and Christians hold in high esteem. Thereupon the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: When the next year comes, God willing, we would observe fast on the 9th But the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) died before the advent of the next year.

SAHIH MUSLIM (Book 6, Hadith 2528)

(AL-LAJNAH AL-DAA’IMAH LI’L-BUHOOTH AL-‘ILMIYYAH WA’L-IFTA’, 11/401)

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8) RULING ON OBSERVING ASHURA,TAASOO’AH FAST BEFORE MAKING UP OBLIGATORY FAST. :-

We Have Explained in Detailed Please Check the Below Link.

https://islaahh.wordpress.com/2012/10/20/ruling-on-observing-naafil-voluntary-fast-before-making-up-obligatory-fast/

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9) IF A MENSTRUATING WOMAN MISSES THE FAST OF ‘ASHOORA’, CAN SHE MAKE IT UP AFTER THAT ? :-

If a person misses the fast of ‘ASHURA’, it cannot be made up because there is no proof for that, and because the reward is connected to fasting on the tenth day of Muharram, and that time has passed.

Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (may Allah have mercy on him) was asked: If the day of ‘ASHURA’ comes and the woman is menstruating, can she make up the fast? Is there a principle concerning naafil acts of worship that may be made up and those that may not be made up? May Allah reward you with good.

He replied: Naafil acts of worship are of two types: those for which there is a reason and those for which there is no reason. Those for which there is a reason end when the reason ends, and they cannot be made up. An example of that is tahiyyat al-masjid (two rak‘ahs to “greet the mosque”). If a man comes and sits down, and sits for a long time, then he gets up wanting to pray tahiyyat al-masjid, it will not be tahiyyat al-masjid, because that is a prayer that is done for a reason and is connected to the reason; once the reason no longer applies, it is no longer prescribed. Another example, it would seem, is the day of ‘Arafah and the day of ‘ASHURA’. If a person delays fasting the day of ‘Arafah and the day of ‘ASHURA’, with no excuse, there is no doubt that it cannot be made up and it would not benefit him if he did make it up, i.e., it would not benefit him in the sense of it being the day of ‘Arafah or the day of ‘ASHURA’. But if that day comes when a person has an excuse, such as the woman who is menstruating or bleeding following childbirth, or a person who is sick, then it seems that it cannot be made up in this case either, because it is connected to a specific day and the ruling ceases to apply once that day is past.

(MAJMOO‘ FATAAWA IBN ‘UTHAYMEEN, 20/43 )

NOTE :-


But if a person is excused for not fasting – such as women who are menstruating or bleeding following childbirth, or those who are sick or are travelling – and he usually fasts on that day or he had the intention of fasting that day, then he will be rewarded for his intention, because of the report

Narrated Ibrahim Abu Isma`il As-Saksaki:

I heard Abu Burda who accompanied Yazid bin Abi Kabsha on a journey. Yazid used to observe fasting on journeys. Abu Burda said to him, “I heard Abu Musa several times saying that Allah’s Apostle said, ‘When a slave falls ill or travels, then he will get reward similar to that he gets for good deeds practiced at home when in good health.”

SAHIH BUKHARI (Vol. 4, Book 52, Hadith 239)

IBN HAJAR SAID : –

“He will have a reward recorded for him like that of what he used to do when he was at home and was healthy” means that he is like one who used to do an act of worship then was prevented from doing it, but he had the intention that were it not for the obstacle he would have continued to do it.

(FATH AL-BAARI UNDER THE COMMENTARY OF ABOVE HADEET)

SOURCE OF FATH AL-BAARI. :-

http://www.islamweb.net/newlibrary/display_book.php?flag=1&bk_no=52&ID=5450

We ask Allaah to make us followers of the Sunnah of His Noble Prophet, to make us live in Islam and die in a state of faith. May He help us to do that which He loves and which pleases Him. We ask Him to help us to remember Him and be thankful to Him, to worship Him properly and to accept our good deeds. May He make us of those who are pious and fear Him. May Allaah bless our Prophet Muhammad and all his family and companions.

Posted on November 11, 2012, in SAWM (FASTING) and tagged , , , , , , , , , . Bookmark the permalink. 2 Comments.

  1. I got confused and refused to fast tasooa bcos sb told me dat u can’t fast on saturday and u can’t single out friday to fast.pls guide me

    • if u dnt fast on tasooa there is nothing wrong,rather fasting on tasooa is recommended,secondly regarding fasting on friday please check the below link.rather exception is made if ashura or tasooa fall on friday or saturday.

      Excluded from this prohibition is one who fasts the day before or after, or if it coincides with days that he habitually fasts, such as one who fasts al-Ayyaam al-Beed (the 13th, 14th and 15th of each hijri month), or who has the habit of fasting a specific day such as the Day of ‘Arafat, and it coincides with a Friday. From this it may be understood that it is permissible for a person who has vowed to fast on the day when So and so returns, for example, or the day when So and so recovers from sickness, to observe that fast if that day happens to be a Friday. Similarly, if ‘Ashoora’ or Arafaat coincides with a Friday, he may fast, because his intention is to fast ‘Ashoora’ or ‘Arafaat, not to fast on a Friday..

      (Fath al-Baari by Ibn Hajar).

      https://islaahh.wordpress.com/2012/07/06/ruling-on-singling-out-friday-for-fasting/

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