AUTHENTICITY OF HADITH 0F PRESENTING AHADITH TO QURAN.
AUTHENTICITY OF HADITH OF PRESENTING AHADITH TO QURAN
THE PRINCIPLE (USOOL) OF PRESENTING AHADITH TO QURAN.
1 .THE HADITH PRESENTED AS PROOF.
2. ITS ANALYSIS.
3. COMMENTS OF MAJOR SCHOLARS:
4. SOME MISCONCEPTIONS .
5. CONCLUDING REMARKS.
1 .THE HADITH PRESENTED AS PROOF.
It has been narrated in the Book “ الرد على سير الأوزاعي” (Attributed to Qazi Abu Yusuf Ya’qood Bin Ibrahim D.182.H) that:
قَالَ أَبُو يُوسُفَ : حَدَّثَنَي خَالِدُ بْنُ أَبِي كَرِيمَةَ ، عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ ، عَنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ , أَنَّهُ دَعَا الْيَهُودَ فَسَأَلَهُمْ فَحَدَّثُوهُ حَتَّى كَذَبُوا عَلَى عِيسَى عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ ، فَصَعِدَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ الْمِنْبَرَ فَخَطَبَ النَّاسَ , فَقَالَ : ” إِنَّ الْحَدِيثَ سَيَفْشُو عَنِّي فَمَا أَتَاكُمْ عَنِّي يُوَافِقُ الْقُرْآنَ فَهُوَ عَنِّي وَمَا أَتَاكُمْ عَنِّي يُخَالِفُ الْقُرْآنَ فَلَيْسَ عَنِّي “
Khalid Bin Kareema narrated to us from Abu Jafar (Abdullah Bin Miswar) that the Prophet (Peace be Upon Him) called the Jews and asked them, so they (Jews) went on narrating Ahadith till they lied upon Jesus (peace be upon him). The Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him) stood up on the pulpit and delivered a sermon to the people and said: “Ahadith will spread about me, so when a Hadith that is compatible with Quran reaches you, then that is my Hadith. And if a Hadith (attributed to Me) reaches you and it is not compatible with Quran (Or goes against a verse of Quran), then it is not my Hadith”.
This narration is Fabricated. (Mawdoo’)
Proof # 1:
In this narration the narrator Abu Ja’far is Abdullah Bin Miswar (Al-Hashmi).
[See: Tareekh-ul Kabeer of Imam Bukahri (168/3). Al-Thiqaat of Ibne Hibban (262/6).
Tareekh.e.Baghdad (292/8), Akhbar Asbahan (305/1).]
Hazfiz Abu Na’eem Asbahani writes:
أبو جعفر هو عبدالله بن مسور “”
[Akhbar Asbahan 305/1]
Imam Ahmed Bin Hanbal writes about Abdullah Bin Miswar:
كان يضع الحديث ويكذب
“He fabricates Ahadith and He is a liar”.
[Kitab Al-Jarah wa Ta’deel 69/5, with a Saheeh Chain]
Ibne Hibban said:
“ He narrated Ahadith from strong narrators and used to fabricate them. He narrated a small number of Ahadith but that too fake and Mursal. Even if he adapts to strong narrators still taking from him is not allowed.”
[Kitab ul Majroheen: 64/2]
Imam Dhahabi said:
“He is a Liar”
[Deewan Al-Dhua’faa’ Wal Matrokeen:2313]
This narrator is unacceptable and there is an Ijma (Consensus) on it.
Note: In the “ Tehzeeb Ul Kamaal” and “ Tehzeeb ul Tehzeeb” Abu Jafar Al-Baqir is mentioned amongst the teachers of Khalid Bin Waleed by mistake. There is no evidence for this whatsoever from the Salaf.
Proof # 2:
The Mursal narrations of Abu Jafar Abdullah Bin Miswar hold no weight.
Proof # 3:
Qazi Abu Yusuf himself is weak and rejected in the eyes of Muhadditheen.
[Subject to further scholarly arguments]
Proof # 4:
The Book “ الرد على سير الأوزاعي” (Attributed to Qazi Abu Yusuf Ya’qoob Bin Ibrahim D.182.H) is not proven from him via an authentic chain.
COMMETS OF MAJOR SCHOLARS:
IMAM SHAFEE’ RAHIMULLAH:
Imam Shafee, who says that the narration stating that hadiths should be presented to the Quran are mawdu (fabricated) (1), states that to act in accordance with sound hadiths is the order of Allah and that a person who does not act in accordance with such a hadith must be mad.(2). Therefore, along with interpreting and restricting the Quran, sunnah also makes independent decisions regarding issues that the Quran did not bring obvious decrees. He says the decrees that sunnah make may seemingly look contrary to the Quran but it is due to the fact that the reasons for the determination of that decree are not known.(3)
(1) In return, Shafi, Risala, 80; states the independent legislative value of sunnah by mentioning the hadith I was given one fold together with the Quran; I can enjoin and prohibit.
(2) Zahabi, Tazkiratul-Huffaz, Beirut, ts, I, 362; Hadith was placed into the heart of the Prophet by Hazrat Jibril (Gabriel). Therefore, sunnah cannot be contrary to the Quran. Shafi, Risala, 76-89.
(3) Shafi, al-Umm, Beyrut, ts. VII, 273,286; See, Gazali, Mustasfa, I,179.
IMAM AHMED BIN HANBAL RAHIMULLAH:
According to Ahmad bin Hanbal, who holds the same opinion as Imam Shafi, sunnah cannot be rejected by the outward meaning of the Quran. Sunnah determines the meaning and denotation of the Quran. Therefore a hadith cannot be rejected because it is contrary to the whole of the Quran. He says such a hadith actually explains and interprets the Quran.
[Abu Zahra, Ahmed b. Hanbal, 239.]
ABDUR REHMAN BIN MEHDI RAHIMULLAH:
Abdur Rehman bin Mehdi says:
قَالَ ابْنُ عَبْدِ الْبَرِّ فِي كِتَابِ جَامِعِ بَيَانِ الْعِلْمِ “: قَالَ عَبْدُ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنُ مَهْدِيٍّ: الزَّنَادِقَةُ وَالْخَوَارِجُ وَضَعُوا حَدِيثَ: «مَا أَتَاكُمْ عَنِيفًا عَرِّضُوهُ عَلَى كِتَابِ اللَّهِ، فَإِنْ وَافَقَ كِتَابَ اللَّهِ فَأَنَا قُلْته، وَإِنْ خَالَفَ فَلَمْ أَقُلْهُ»
This hadith (presenting Hadith to Quran) is forged by Khawarij and Zindeeq. This hadith is not proven and carrying such opinion is itself wrong. Secondly The hadith presenting hadith over Quran is against the Quran itself: Because Quran states:
Whatever the Prophet saw gives you take it and from whatever he forbids keep away from it
There are some other scholars who say that it is not right to reject sunnah under the pretext of presenting it to the Quran, that sunnah explains and interprets the Quran, that it can bring decrees that are not present in the Quran, that therefore hadiths cannot be rejected due to an apparent contradiction because their source is the same and they cannot be contrary to each other and that the apparent contradiction can definitely be explained. Ibn Hazm, Ibn Abi Shayba, Suyuti, Ibn Abdil-Barr, Qurtubi, Shawkani, Saghani, Fattani, Ibnul-Arraq, Aliyyul-Kâri are some of them.
[See respectively. Ibn Hazm, Ihkam, I,114-117; ıbn Qayyim, Ilamul-Muwaqqiin, Beirut, 1994, II, 220 etc.; Ibn Abi Shayba, Musannaf, Beirut, 1989, VIII, 363 etc.; Suyuti, Miftah, 2 etc.; Ibn Abdil-Barr, Jami, II, 190; Kurtubi, Tafsir, I, 38; For the views of some authors regarding presenting cf. Akseki, Riyazus-Salihin Translation, I, XX-XXI; Abu Zahw, Mukanatus-Sunnah, 32-36; Abu Shahba, Sunnah, I, 58; Ajjaj, as-Sunne, 49-50; Sibai, as-Sunna, 81-83,98-100; Keleş, Arz, 90 etc.].
There is a misconception that Umar (May Allah be pleased With Him) used the principle of presenting Hadith to Quran. The Hadith of Umar and Fatimah Binte Qays is often presented in this regard.
“In the time of Umar a question arose whether a , woman who had been divorced but the divorce had not become I effective could remain in the house of her husband. A lady Fatima bint Qais stated before Umar that she had it on the authority of the Holy Prophet that such woman could no longer lodge with her husband. The Holy Quran clearly provided that such woman could lodge with her husband till the divorce became effective. Umar accordingly ruled: “We cannot abandon the Book of Allah on the word of a woman, for we do not know whether she remembers the tradition correctly or has forgotten it.”
But their argument is wrong. We say that The approach that all of the hadith should be reviewed, and those that are in accordance with the Quran should be accepted and those that are not should be excluded is contrary to the attitude of Hazrat Umar. Hazrat Umar, who hears that word for the first time, evaluates it by taking the whole Quran and sunnah.
One of the evidences that those who adopt the approach of presenting some hadiths to the Quran is some applications of Hazrat Aisha, the mother of the believers. Zarkashi collected some of her objections to sahaba in a book (1); some of them are as follows.
When Hazrat Aisha heard the hadith, Walad zina is the most evil of the three narrated by Abu Hurayrah, she said May Allah have mercy on Abu Hurayrah. That hadith is about a munafiq (hypocrite), he afflicted the Prophet a lot. The Prophet asked who he was. They said he was an illegitimate child. Then he said that hadith. How can the Messenger of Allah say something like that while the Quran says, no bearer of burdens can bear the burden of another?(2). That is, the adulterous woman and man are sinful. The illegitimate child has no sins.
If we read it carefully, we will see that at first, Hazrat Aisha corrects the event, expresses that it has been misunderstood and mentions a verse that is in accordance with the decree coming from sunnah in order to state that the Quran and sunnah cannot contradict each other since they come from the same source.
Hazrat Aisha asked not only sahaba but also sometimes the Prophet (PBUH) questions. Once our Prophet (PBUH) says, He who is reckoned is exhausted. Hazrat Aisha says, May Allah sacrifice me for you, O Messenger of Allah! Does Allah not say he who is given his Record in his Right hand, soon will his account be taken by an easy reckoning.?(3). Then the Prophet (PBUH) says, It is being before Allah. He whose reckoning is disputable is exhausted (4), clarifying the issue.
That example is meaningful. Hazrat Aisha did not present a narration that reached her to the Quran but asked the Prophet (PBUH) about it personally because she did not understand the consistency of the decree of the Prophet with the Quran. It also shows us a different dimension of the issue. Hence, the objection of someone who cannot understand the integrity of sunnah and the Quran can easily be settled by somebody else. It is something that shows us the relativity of the issue.
[(1) Zarkashi, Badruddin Abu Abdillah, al-Ijaba li iradi ma Istadrakathu Aisha alas-Sahaba, Beirut, 1985.
(2) Zarkashi, Ijaba, p.119; See, Musnad, II, 311; VI,109.
(3) Inshiqaq, 7-8.
(4) Bukhari, Tafsiru Inshiqaq, 2; Musnad, VI, 103,206.]
Abu Rafi’ reported: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said, “Let me not find one of you reclining on his couch and when he is informed of a command which I have commanded, he says: I do not know this, for we only follow what we find in the Book of Allah.”
[Source: Sunan Ibn Majah 13]
Saeed Bin Jubair (May Allah Have Mercy Upon Him) says:
ٍ ﺃَﻧَّﻪُ ﺣَﺪَّﺙَ ﻳَﻮْﻣًﺎ ﺑِﺤَﺪِﻳﺚٍ ﻋَﻦِ ﺍﻟﻨَّﺒِﻲِّ ﺻَﻠَّﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﻪُ ﻋَﻠَﻴْﻪِ ﻭَﺳَﻠَّﻢَ، ﻓَﻘَﺎﻝَ ﺭَﺟُﻞٌ : ﻓِﻲ ﻛِﺘَﺎﺏِ ﺍﻟﻠَّﻪِ ﻣَﺎ ﻳُﺨَﺎﻟِﻒُ ﻫَﺬَﺍ، ﻗَﺎﻝَ : » ﻟَﺎ ﺃُﺭَﺍﻧِﻲ ﺃُﺣَﺪِّﺛُﻚَ ﻋَﻦْ ﺭَﺳُﻮﻝِ ﺍﻟﻠَّﻪِ ﺻَﻠَّﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﻪُ ﻋَﻠَﻴْﻪِ ﻭَﺳَﻠَّﻢَ ﻭَﺗُﻌَﺮِّﺽُ ﻓِﻴﻪِ ﺑِﻜِﺘَﺎﺏِ ﺍﻟﻠَّﻪِ، ﻛَﺎﻥَ ﺭَﺳُﻮﻝُ ﺍﻟﻠَّﻪِ ﺻَﻠَّﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﻪُ ﻋَﻠَﻴْﻪِ ﻭَﺳَﻠَّﻢَ ﺃَﻋْﻠَﻢَ ﺑِﻜِﺘَﺎﺏِ ﺍﻟﻠَّﻪِ ﺗَﻌَﺎﻟَﻰ ﻣِﻨْﻚ
One day I narrated a Hadith of the Prophet (peace be upon him). A man stood up and said: “ The hadith you narrated is against a verse of Quran. I said: “ O Listen! I am narrating to you Hadith of the Prophet (Peace be Upon Him) and you are comparing it with Quran (as per your own understanding). No doubt the Prophet (peace be upon him) was more knowledgeable than you.
It is reported that ‘Imrān b. Husayn – Allāh be pleased with him – was once relating hadīth amongst a group of people, when a man said:
Leave this and give us something from the Book of Allāh. ‘Imrān said, “You are a dunce (stupid). Do you find in the Book of Allāh details of Prayer. Do you find in the Book of Allāh details of Fasting!? This Qur`ān prescribes those matters, and the Sunnah explains them.”
Al-Harawī, Dham Al-Kalām article 244, et al with various wordings.
AND ALLAH KNOWS BEST.